Applied sciences contributed to the progress of man and raised him, and was saved from diseases and pain and contributed to his livelihood for a longer period and more, genetic engineering is one of those important modern science, has been modified from genes that cause diseases and make them permeate the human body, and talk about endless , And we will touch on a little of it here.

  • • Genetic engineering is concerned with various organisms, including plants, microorganisms, animals and humans, of course, in which DNA is studied, chromosomes are separated separately and applied to the bodies of organisms to determine their responsible status, control and control.
  • • The technique of modification and genetic engineering was used many years ago. Bacteria were the first organisms to be introduced in 1973. After that, rats were introduced in 1974. Finally, humans began to reap the fruits of their labor when insulin was produced and sold in 1982 and later developed in 1994.

Genetic engineering is called genetic modification, an indirect manipulation by humans to change the formalities that will appear on them.

  • • The genes enable us to increase the amount of substances produced in the human body, and to provide them with a decrease in order to avoid disease.

Genetic engineering is involved in many fields, such as medicine, chemistry, biology, biochemistry and the physical sciences of the body. It has also represented an unprecedented development in pharmacology, with important drugs such as insulin, pesticides that protect plants and plants from insect attack.

  • • The latest and important development in the genetic engineering world has isolated the genetic material and copied the material that relates to the character that we want to modify, and thus generate a construct containing the genetic elements in order to obtain a true genetic change and then implant it into the human body.
  • • The goal of human development of genetic engineering and genetics, making life easier for humans, reducing costs and increasing the quality and efficiency of manufactured material, as in the pharmaceutical protein, which was manufactured and sold in 2009, a genetic rate.

Experiments from the theoretical domain went into practice in 1986. The United States and France engineered tobacco and made it herbicide-resistant, and China marketed genetically modified plants to become resistant to viruses. The EU also modified and sold tomatoes genetically, .

Applications of biological and genetic engineering


  • • Production of vaccines against certain types of diseases: such as viral hepatitis, herpes simplex, and foot-and-mouth disease in animals.
  • • Production of human insulin hormone from bacteria: The commercial production of insulin from bacteria in 1982, and this is an important achievement saved the lives of many people, previously relied on the extraction of insulin from the pancreas, pigs, cows, which is expensive, and free of side effects in Patients are allergic.
  • • Production of lymphocytes: proteins that regulate the functioning of the immune system in the human body, including: the protein interferon alpha, which is used to combat viral diseases, such as: colds, hepatitis, herpes, as well as cancer, in addition to interleukin 2, which promotes the production of lymphocytes , And is currently being tested on AIDS patients.
  • • Production of somatostatin: a hormone produced by the hypothalamus in the human brain, regulates the work of growth hormone. Previously, somatostatin was obtained from human bodies, but the technique of genetic engineering provided the world with sufficient quantities of this hormone, which is used to treat people with developmental abnormalities, For the treatment of HIV, which is known as adenocin deaminase deficiency.
  • • Production of the hormone erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells in people with severe anemia.
  • • Produce substances that dissolve blood clots, and prevent blockage of arteries; to prevent heart attacks.
  • • Producing antibodies that contain radioactive agents or cellular toxins to treat cancer.


  • • Increase the productivity of agricultural crops, increase their resistance to diseases, heat, moisture and reduce their need for fertilizers.
  • • Produce crops capable of stabilizing atmospheric nitrogen, and thus do not need to be supplied with fertilizers.
  • • Production of agricultural crops capable of producing toxic proteins for insects and worms, such as tomato worms and tobacco worms.
  • • Production of agricultural crops not affected by herbicides, such as: glyphosate, allowing the farmer to spray the whole field with glyphosate, without harming the crop.
  • • Produce several types of microorganisms that decompose toxic chemicals and can be used to get rid of insect pests and pathogenic organisms.
  • • Improve the quality and quantity of protein content of proteins.
  • • Transfer gene production of animal proteins to plants.
  • • Improve plant capacity for photosynthesis.


  • • Produce genetically modified organisms, which can convert sucrose to glucose.
  • • Produce low-cost fertilizer from ammonia produced by bacteria and genetically modified blue bacteria.
  • • Producing microbes with the ability to convert cellulose into sugar, which can then be used to produce ethanol.
  • • Monitoring the efficiency of the decomposition of litter, petroleum products, naphthalene and other industrial waste using genetically modified bacteria, producing light proportional to the amount of waste analyzed.
  • • Production of bioenergy and biofuels: This biofuels can be converted into alcohol, diesel, oil or other energy products.

Turkey's distinguished universities in the field of biological and genetic engineering

Istanbul Bilgi University

  • • University of Sabanga
  • • Izmir Economic University
  • • Yedi Tabbah University